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英语阅读“五步曲”初探

作者:许富华 来源:未知 更新日期:2011-12-29 浏览次数:

 

-----山东成武第二中学

许富华

一.阅读的重要性:

阅读是获取语言知识最直接最有效的方法,阅读不仅是现代外语教学应该注意培养和训练的重点,同时也是提高英语学习者语言能力的必经之路,英语学习者要掌握作为第二语言的英语的完整的系统知识,阅读是最重要的有效途径,所以提高中学生的英语阅读能力是中学英语教学的重要目标之一。

二、阅读教学中存在的两大误区:

1, 教师在阅读教学中受传统语法教学的影响,过多地重视语法,讲解单词,补充词组,罗列搭配,逐句逐段分析句子结构等。有的甚至把阅读当课外阅读上,勾划词组,对对答案,学生自读了解一下故事情节即可,而忽略了整篇文章的篇章结构及中心思想的把握,不了解作者的写作意图及观点,更不用说作者的写作技巧与思路了!

2, 为了应付高考,各校老师、学生们都在大规模地搞阅读训练,题海战术,很多情况只是局限到获取信息,在原文上标出问题的出处,掌握一些快速寻找信息的技巧,完成4-5道单选即可。这样,有好多的经典文只是蜻蜓点水,囫囵吞枣地“尝了一下”,接着又开始了另一篇阅读,未能真正体会文章的“内在美”,且造成资源浪费。这好有一比:这种阅读方法恰似清末慈禧老佛爷的三餐,厨师精心准备了一天甚至几天的一道营养美味的大餐,她只是品尝那么一小口,就倒掉了,只是太可惜了!

三. 造成上述情况的原因:

1, 教师没有认真研读《高中英语课程标准》,对于高中生阅读的要求,过分追求分数和结果,而没有引领学生去欣赏文章的内在美。

2, 传统教学法在教师的头脑中根深蒂固,教师没有根据新时代,新内容来做出改变,许多老师已经习惯了按部就班地教学,任何的改变都会加重教师的备课量,对教师自身的素养和能力提出更高的要求,无形中对教师形成一种压力。

四. 这种教学的后果:

这种过分追求分数和结果的应试教育长期以往留下了很严重的“后遗症”,那就是当学生考入大学,进入了用英语的阶段时,他们感到“力不从心”,惘然不知所措。别人说的自己听不懂,自己讲得别人直摇头,用文章交流时更是难上加难!他们苦苦挣扎了七、八年,却成了“聋哑学生”。那么,怎样才能打破这种僵局,让大学生们说得流利,写得精彩呢?这是摆在我们英语教育者们面前的一个大问题!

下面为大家介绍一种既能让学生在高考中得高分又能讲得流利、写得精彩的阅读好方法---阅读“五部曲”:

阅读“五步曲”简介

一, 理论基础:

英国哲学家,作家和科学家培根(Bacon)的《论读书》(On Reading)中有这么一段话:

“ Some books are to be tasted, others to be swallowed and some few to be chewed and digested; that is, some books are to be read only in parts; Others to be read but not curiously; and some few to be read wholly and with diligence and attention.”“书有可浅尝者,有可吞食者,少数则须咀嚼消化,换言之,有只须读其部分者,有只须大体 涉猎者,少数则须全读,读时须全神贯注,孜孜不倦。”这段话告诉我们:不同题裁、不同内容的书对于不同层次,不同领域的读书者来说是要采取不同的阅读方法和策略的,对你来说是无关紧要的书只需“taste” 或“Swallow”即可,而对那些有关你研究领域的经典文章当然要“chew and digest”.就高一、高二学生来讲,课本是学习之本,专家们煞费苦心精选,精编的课文,尤其是每单元的主课文当然要“精雕细琢”、“咀嚼消化”。对于高三学生,更要泛读与精读结合,老师留心或精选一些经典文来细读,不仅要掌握阅读应试技巧,训练做题速度与准确性,以便在高考中折桂,更要从这些经典文中学到作者用词的准确性,写作手法,欣赏语言的流畅优美,以便丰富他们的文化底蕴。常言道:“书不在多而在精”,精读一篇文章胜过泛读10篇,甚至20篇!

二. “阅读五步曲” 具体每步的任务:

第一步:应试阅读(Taste): 掌握应试阅读技巧,在高考中得高分。

第二步:阅读表达(Swallow):分析文章的篇章结构,尤其是根据文章的几种类型如何

找中心句(T.S.),培养学生高度提炼中心要旨的能力及表达能力,还有在以后写作中知道如何谋篇布局。

第三步:精读(Chew):这一环节是为“完型填空”做好坚实的铺垫!因字,词,句的讲解是所有老师的拿手好戏,在此不多累述。

第四步:背诵或复述(digest):在掌握了整篇文章的篇章结构,精析翻译了文中的句段之后,千万别放手,要乘胜追击,背诵或根据key words复述出来,连词成句,连句成文,这是极好的训练学生写作的方法!并且在已经弄懂了文章的情况下去背诵,真是太容易了。我多次在班里尝试一篇100字左右的文章,用这种方法程度一般的学生5分钟就能背下来,更何况程度好的学生。学生一天背诵100字文章易如反掌,长此以往,无需老师教阅读方法,学生自然了如指掌,学生积累背诵了这么多精美文段,还愁说不出流利得英文,写不出精彩的文章吗?俗话说“读书破万卷,下笔如有神”就是这个道理。

第五步:(拓展)写作(apply应用):把刚才背诵或复述的文段马上写下来,巩固“劳动成果”,然后再拓展写作,学以致用,解决问题这也是我们教育的最终目的!

实例展示

“阅读五步曲” 实例展示

(Five-step Reading)

例文:

 

题材

词数

建议时间

饮食问题

300

6分钟

Recently some American scientists have given a useful sincere piece of advice to people in industrialized nations that they would be much healthier if they ate more of the same kind of food eaten by humans living more than 10,000 years ago.

The scientists say that the human body has changed greatly. Our bodies have not been able to deal with these changes in lifestyle and this has led to new kinds of sickness. These new sickness were not known

in ancient times. So they are called “diseases of civilization”. Many cancers and diseases of the blood system, including heart attacks and stroke are examples of such diseases.

Scientists noted that people in both the Old Stone Age and the New Stone Age enjoyed very little alcohol or tobacco, probably none. Ancient people also got a great deal of physical exercise, but a change in food is one of the main differences between life in ancient times and that of today.

Stone-age people hunted wild animals for their meat, which had much less fat than domestic or tame ones. They also ate a lot of fresh wild vegetables and fruits. They did not have milk or any other dairy products, and they made very little use of grains. But today, we eat a large amount of these. We eat six times more salt than our remote ancestors. We eat more sugar. We eat twice as much fat but only one third as much protein and much less vitamin(维生素)C.

People today probably do not want to live the way people thousands of years ago did, but scientists say that we would be much healthier if we ate much the same way our remote ancestors did, cutting the amount of fatty, salty and sweet food.

(1) New kinds of sickness have been found because____.

A. the human body has changed compared with(同…比较)humans who first appeared on the earth

B. the way we live has changed a little

C. our body can’t deal with the changes in lifestyle

D. the way we live today is proper for the human body

(2) What is the main cause that people suffer from a lot of new sickness?

A. Ancient people did a great deal of physical exercise.

B. People today have a lot of alcohol.

C. People today have more tobacco.

D. Food today is quite different from that of ancient times.

(3) The underlined words” dairy products” means____.

A.乳制品 B.食品

C.肉制品 D.粮食制品

操作步骤(Teaching Procedures)

第一步(Step Ⅰ):应试阅读(Task—based reading)

一.阅读技巧口诀(熟背)

阅读理解,技巧很多

先题后文,文题交错

阅读题干,标出关键

文题呈现,同步一般

标出出处,偏差可免

主旨大意,求助首尾

主旨选中,反推验证

明显不对,尽早划去

陈述绝对,一般有事

A、 B难取,求助主题

无论难易,不离不弃

各题一串,中心自现

时间不济,匆览话题

每段开头,串在一起

未读先选,常识助你

机智沉稳,力争一分!

二.Read the passage quickly to finish the following three questions only.<M:6>

(慢慢灌输阅读技巧)

三. Check the answers.(1C 2D 3A )

要求:学生说答案并指出出处,老师引导学生简单分析,统一认识,做错的自己用红色笔标出。

第二步(Step Ⅱ):The structure of the passage. <阅读表达>

Q1:Find out the topic sentence and shorten it.

(要求学生平时阅读每篇文章都标出主题句。)

1、 文章类型:开门见山型(文第一句)

2、 标志词(sign word):scientists

Q:What other sign words do you know?

Ss :psychologist,research(er),study, report, survey.

T: The first sentence ,i、e.the first paragraph is a very long sentence. Let’s shorten it!

<培养学生提炼信息的能力,通过对句子的提炼,段落的提炼,进而提炼文章,这不仅是阅读表达的题型,而是阅读理解常考的题型。>

提炼过程:(原文42個字)

à1>.Scientists have given the advice that we would be much healthier if we ate the same food eaten by our ancestors.<21 words>

à2>. Scientists advise that we’d be much healthier if we ate what our ancestors did.<14 words>

à3>. We’d be much healthier if we ate what our ancestors did.<11 words>

(Because who say it is not important, but what they say is important.)

à4>.For your health, eat the right food.<7 words>

à5>.Food and health.<only 3 words>

[“Food and health” can serve as the best title.]

Q2: The main idea of Par.2.<within 10 words>

(The second sentence is the topic sentence of Par.2.)

Our bodies haven’t been able to deal with these changes in lifestyleand this has led to newkinds of sickness.(原文)

-提炼-àThese changes in lifestyle have led to new diseases.<9 words>

----àLifestyle changes have caused new diseases.<6 words>

Q3:What lifestyles do people today have?<List 4 aspects within 15 words>

1> much alcohol 2> much tobacco

3> little physical exercise

4> changes in food

Q4:What does the word “domestic” mean?<Line2、Par.4> Tame/Not wild..

<瞻前顾后,上下求索>

Q5:The main idea of Par.4.<within 5 words>

(Par.4 talks about different foods between ancient people and people today.但要注意Par.3的最后一句是一个承上启下的句子,其中“A change in food”就是中心句。)

Q6:What do scientists advise people to do?<within 15 words>

1) To eat the same way our ancestors did.

2) To cut the fatty,salty and sweet food.

-à<就地取材>

-变通àTo eat the right food.

温馨提示:平时训练不要拘泥形式,百花齐放才是春嘛。

 

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